The reason is that this is due to the fact that a considerable proportion of university graduates in China have completed STEM subjects (up to 40% in 2013), while the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and other developed countries are less than one-third.
Despite decades of outstanding achievements in the reform and development of higher education, compared with many higher education powers, the problem of ”big but not strong” in China’s university system is still very prominent. The World Competitiveness Yearbook (2017-2018) shows that although China’s national competitiveness ranking is 27th and the innovation index is 28th, the higher education index ranks only 47th. There is a significant gap compared with developed countries such as the United States (No.3), Germany (No.15), the United Kingdom (No.20) and Japan (No.23). From the perspective of the needs of economic and social transformation, the types, levels and professional structure of talent training in Chinese universities are not consistent with social needs. On the one hand, the ”top-of-the-ground” structure of the talent team has not yet been formed. Not only the number of high-end talents such as science and technology leading talents and innovative entrepreneurs is relatively insufficient, but the scale of industrial high-skilled talents is also very limited. On the other hand, the problem of employment difficulties for recent college graduates has intensified. According to the World Bank study (2018), in 2015, the unemployment rate of Chinese university graduates (within six months of graduation) was about 8%, 25% of graduates were paid less than the average wage of migrant workers, and 30% of occupational types were low-skilled ( No university diploma is required). stainless steel pipe suppliers To a certain extent, this reflects the downward trend of the return on university education in China. The reason is that the improvement of the quality of education has not been synchronized with the expansion of scale, especially the cultivation of students’ awareness of innovation. China’s higher education is still in the “extended” development stage, and the intensional development of innovative education is insufficient.
The transfer of educational methods is lag and the insufficient of innovational talent cultivation are become the key shortcomings.
Firstly, the teaching methods of education are backward, and the evaluation methods of students are single.
On the one hand, the development of practical and interactive teaching is insufficient. Classroom teaching is still based on knowledge indoctrination, and it emphasizes knowledge learning rather than exploratory learning. The teaching methods of most colleges are still based on lectures. The environment of students’ self-experience, self-learning, and free creation is not yet available. Practice teaching has also been weakened to varying degrees. Students have more passive practice components and too few active practical components. Teaching methods overemphasize knowledge transfer and knowledge memory, and do not focus on methodology and creativity. On the other hand, the student assessment method is single, focusing on results and light processes. Most of the assessment contents are uniform, not only lacking the multi-chemistry industry assessment content system with equal ability and knowledge assessment, but also the evaluation method is relatively simple. The monitoring, evaluation and feedback mechanism for the student learning process has not been established.